少數族裔貧窮情況

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居於香港的少數族裔人士在生活、升學及就業等融入社會的方面都遇到不少困難,如何協助他們融入社會是一個重要的社會議題。另外,政府於2013年9月公佈的《2012年香港貧窮情況報告》亦未有包括少數族裔群組的數據及分析。

社聯根據2001、2006及2011年香港人口普查的數據,以貧窮線 (即住戶每月入息中位數的50%) 作為分析工具,找出香港六個南亞及東南亞少數族裔[1]的貧窮情況和特徵,並提出相關的政策建議。

在2011年,香港的六個少數族裔的住戶人數共有113,815人,佔全港人口的1.7%。與2001年比較,相關人數增加了4千多人。若與全港家庭住戶的住戶人數比較,南亞及東南亞少數族裔的住戶人數一般較多;而且,除印尼人外,其餘五個族裔大部分是四人或以上的家庭。

在貧窮率方面,巴基斯坦裔(51.1%)、印尼裔(29.4%)、泰國裔(27.4%)的貧窮率均較全港的平均(20.4%)為高;而尼泊爾裔(16.4%)、印度裔(11.4%)、菲律賓裔(17.1%)的貧窮率則較全港的平均為低。

在10年間,南亞及東南亞少數族裔的貧窮率有惡化的趨勢,貧窮率由2001年的17.3%上升至2011年的23.9%,升幅較全港貧窮率的升幅更加明顯。其中巴基斯坦人的貧窮率由2001年的27.4%大幅增至2011 年的51.1%。

如比較不同年齡群組的貧窮狀況,兒童(0-14歲)是南亞及東南亞少數族裔貧窮人數最多的群組。2011年香港有8,863名貧窮的南亞及東南亞少數族裔兒童,貧窮率為32.5%。若跟2001年的數字比較,兒童貧窮人數增加了約3,000人,兒童貧窮率也上升了接近9%。

南亞及東南亞少數族裔的在職貧窮的情況亦十分嚴重,數據顯示不少貧窮的南亞及東南亞少數族裔均有成員工作,但工資低、兒童數目多,即使家庭有人工作但仍不能脫貧。

少數族裔在生活、升學及就業方面都遇到不同的困難,而當中語言障礙是其中一個關鍵因素。社聯建議政府及僱主提供更多語言支援、職業培訓及就業機會;在教育方面,由學前教育階段起培養兒童的中文能力及營造學習環境、設立「中文作為第二語言」政策、加強教師培訓、並加強支援少數族裔家庭。社會服務方面,政府亦應加強公共服務及地區服務對少數族裔的支援。以上建議目的是協助少數族裔人士減低主要因語言問題所帶出的生活問題,從而協助他們就學、就業、或使用社會服務,以融入社會及向上流動。

Ethnic minorities (EM) who are living in Hong Kong face social inclusion difficulties in livelihood, education and employment.  How to enhance their social inclusion and realize their potentials is an important social agenda.  Besides, the “Hong Kong Poverty Situation Report 2012”, released by the Government in September 2013 did not include statistics and analysis for the EM groups.

Based on the data from 2001, 2006, and 2011 Population Census, The Hong Kong Council of Social Service (HKCSS) adopted poverty line (50% of median domestic household income) to analyze the poverty situation of 6 EM groups[2] in Hong Kong, and to suggest policy recommendations.

In 2011, there were 113,815 South and Southeast Asian EM persons, which constituted 1.7% of total population in Hong Kong.  There were 4,000 persons more when compared to 2001.  By comparing the household size, EM groups generally had a larger household size than the overall population.  Besides, except Indonesian, most of the EM households in that of other 5 ethnicities were with 4 persons or more.

The poverty rate of Pakistanis (51.1%), Indonesians (29.4%), Thais (27.4%) was higher than that of the whole population (20.4%); while that of Nepalese (16.4%), Indians (11.4%) and Filipinos (17.1%) was lower than the rate of the overall population.

By comparing figures of 2001 to 2011, the poverty rate of EM groups worsened, it rose from 17.3% in 2001 to 23.9% in 2011, higher than the figure of Hong Kong as a whole.  For Pakistani, the poverty rate even rose from 27.4% in 2001 to 51.1% in 2011.

When examining the poverty situation among all age groups, children (aged 0-14) was the largest group with poverty population.  In 2011, there were 8,863 children living in low income families, which constituted the poverty rate 32.5%.  In 10 years’ time, there were around 3,000 more children fell in poverty, and the poverty rate of children had also increased by 9%.

The working poor situation among low income South and Southeast Asians was also serious.  Working families with more dependent children and engaged in low income jobs make it difficult for them to move out from poverty.

As EM faced difficulties in livelihood, education and employment, language barrier is the key factor in affecting their aforesaid activities as well as upward mobility.  HKCSS recommended that the government and employers to provide job opportunities, language and vocational training for EM persons.  In the education side, the government should ensure support for learning Chinese language starting from pre-primary education, develop the curriculum on “Chinese as a Second Language”, strengthen support to teachers for teaching Chinese as a second language, and enhance support to parents of EM students in order to provide information and establish networks.  On the public and social services, the government should also ensure the accessibility to those services.  All the above recommendations aim at facilitating EM persons to reduce difficulties in livelihood, employment and education due to language barrier, consequently assist them to social inclusion and upward mobility.

 
[1] 這六個南亞及東南亞少數族裔分別是:巴基斯坦人、尼泊爾人、印度人、印尼人、菲律賓人及泰國人。
[2] The 6 ethnic minorities groups are: Pakistani, Nepalese, Indian, Indonesian, Filipino, and Thai.

歡迎按此 少數族裔貧窮數據 了解更多有關資料。

同時,亦歡迎 下載 《貧窮焦點2013:南亞及東南亞少數族裔的貧窮情況》報告,以供參閱。